When learning English, it is important to learn grammar. Grammar is important because it is the key point that makes it possible for us to speak or write English in the right order and express ourselves clearly. It is the way in which sentences are structured and the language is formatted. In order to learn English grammar, we have to focus on one grammar and practice it until we can easily use it. Many people think grammar learning is too boring to insist on learning. But repeated practice is the only way to study correct grammar. If you don’t practice each grammar over and over at the beginning, the following learning will cost you more time and effort.As is mentioned before, taking English grammar exercises is critical.

The next problem is how to do grammar exercises. There are many ways to do exercises, which include read books, take curriculum about English grammar, surf the Internet to find materials about English grammar exercises and discuss grammar with other learners in some forums.

Reading grammar books and taking some tests is the basic way to practice grammar, which applies to everyone. We just need to go to the bookshops or library looking for a book of grammar exercises. A good book of grammar exercises should offer the reader not only the function of words and tense but also some examples. It is no use learning just the meaning of a new word, or the function of a tense or the use of a particular adverb because we also have to see how they behave in a sentence or in a paragraph. Besides the book you selected must has answers, or you can’t know whether your answer is right.

For those who prefer a more structured environment when learning English, curriculum about English grammar might be a good choice. We can enroll in an English class or use at-home English learning computer software.

In addition, Internet is also a good choice to do English grammar exercises. Information and materials of the Internet is abundant. We can get whatever we want. The most important thing is that Internet can provide us with a platform, such as forums, to discuss with others. In the forums, we can ask questions about the tests and express an opinion for discussion, which help us to learn exactly correct grammar as well as the way to communicate with others in English.

Go to any online or offline bookstore searching for an English Spanish dictionary and you will very soon be overwhelmed with the sheer number of dictionaries you have to choose from. Anybody not knowing a few tricks in choosing the best dictionary for them could end up blindly choosing a dictionary based on what looks could from the outside or some other unimportant factor.

Well, that is probably the worst way to choose an English Spanish dictionary. Merely looking at the cover of a dictionary or even flipping through the pages of a dictionary will not tell you everything you need to know about the positives and negatives of that particular dictionary.

In order to choose the best English Spanish dictionary available for you, it’s important to know of a few important things to look for so that you’re not stuck with one that won’t help you in the way you need it to.

Before you even look for a dictionary online or at your local bookstore, you need to do some research and decide why you need a dictionary and what you’re going to use it for. As I said before, there are all different kinds of English Spanish dictionaries, and some of them are best used for very specific purposes. Are you a foreign language student and need a relatively portable dictionary for classwork? Are you a professional translator in need of a comprehensive bilingual dictionary? Do you need a dictionary that includes common sayings, or do you need a dictionary that includes help with conjugating verbs?

After asking yourself these questions and figuring out exactly what kind of English Spanish dictionary you need and what you’ll be using it for, the next step is to get online and see what other people have to say about the various dictionaries available.

Whenever I buy any kind of resource book, I always go to a place like Amazon.com and read reviews of the different resource books available. When you do read the reviews, read them with a grain of salt. One bad review doesn’t mean a particular book is horrible. Rather, it’s better to recognize the overall prevailing trend throughout the reviews and what the majority think.

The last step is actually buying the dictionary. You can either buy the book online or at your local bookstore. I tend to buy books like that online for the sole reason that many times I can find the dictionary used and pay a lot less than I would pay for it at the bookstore down the street. Go to some of the online book sites, and even sites like Ebay.com and Half.com and you should be able to find it cheaper than the bookstore, even with shipping and handling charges included.

Hopefully by following these steps you can find an English Spanish dictionary for the right price that will be just what you need and are looking for.

What will be your criteria to decide whether you are choosing a good educational toy after seeing one? Educational videos, software, Chemistry Kits, Telescope, flash- cards all are known to be the science toys, so which will work more appropriately for your child? According to the theoretical aspects followed by experts, the easiest way to know the solutions is to find out whether the toys are promoting any convergent or divergent thought process of the children? If you are not aware of the two terminologies, then let’s have a discussion for the same.

Convergent Thinking

Ability to tackle things having only one predefined answer by learning the facts and guidelines to move upon for reaching to that answer! This is to develop fundamentals of your child by making them learn the way of reaching to a unified solution, with the help of the given instructions. This will create opportunities related to education in children for giving their best performances in the tests and multiple choice exams.Some Examples can be given here for proving my point: Jigsaw puzzles are designed to have only one correct solution and that can be solved in one way only, mathematical flash- cards are defined to have one correct answer, coloring of the pink pig as seen in the pre schools educational videos is always shown to be pink, and many others.

Divergent Thinking

This defines the way of thinking in the sense of exploring more than one possible answers, creating newer conceptions, and solving conceptualized problems. This is actually the way of thinking of leading personalities in the fields of designing, engineering, and managing the similar operations. They are experts of their work because of the strong thought process habited by their minds, for thinking quietly out-of-the-box.Science toys used for the promotion of this type learning process includes arts-kits and crafts, scientific and musical conceptualized teaching toys, role-playing and different type of costumes, encouraging your child for developing the imagination and socializing skills.

Construction Educational Toys

Best option for the promotion of Both Convergent and Divergent Thinking Process.

For simultaneous setting of the platform for creativity of both convergent and divergent thinking, with the help of the guidelines follow-ups written on the box of the game to reach the making of the modeled sample by the children, constructional toys are the best option. With the follow-ups of the instructions, the required expertise can be acquired
with the help of construction-pieces.A pride and enjoyable feeling gets developed in the child with the accomplishment of the challenging-tasks, just like after completing the LEGO-model building or completion of a puzzle. All of the ideas are for harnessing the emotional energies and moving the kids to THINK!

At times, writing an English paper can easily make students feel discouraged, which will cause them to lose self-confidence in their capability to write. Therefore, lots of pupils will benefits if they hire an English tutor.

Here are several ways an English tutor can assist students succeed in class:

1. First of all, quite often students may require a tutor to discuss a course they’ve been learning in class or perhaps a topic which they’ve been studying. A kid can usually benefit from an English tutor that is able to assist them process and also collect their thoughts, organize and then help sorting out their notes.

2. The English tutor will be able to guide the pupil in methodically creating an essay outline. Making use of the information that he / she has organized, the pupil and the tutor can produce an in depth essay outline. Creating an outline for an essay is actually an important step to do before writing a paper.

3. Next, the pupil can easily write the paper, following the outline of the essay. The tutor will then assist the pupil in creating a rough draft of the paper. The pupil can go through the paper again from the start to finish, rewrite it, correct it, and then fill in any extra information and facts as required.

4. The pupil may edit the paper, and then correct any grammatical mistakes. A tutor will be able to look at different topics like fragments,, citing quotations, run-on sentences, punctuation, past versus present tense, active versus passive verbs, and many other things.

5. Once the paper is finished, the tutor will assess the paper with the pupil to make sure that the pupil has edited and polished the paper.

Working together with an English tutor can assist students build the skills and a system to write a great and well organized paper.

In present scenario, English is that only language which is in high demand; probably, world wide use of this language is making it an essential part of human lives. Whether you are a student or a professional it is for sure that you must have realized the influence of this language in every field. Either it is for an entrance test or for making a good career in any industry, everyone need to have a good knowledge of this queen’s language. For people, who are going to appear in any examination it can be quiet difficult to learn English by their own; in such situation it is apt for them to hire an English tutor to get a good command over English.

People, who reside in New York City, can easily get perfect solution for learning English with a tutor. In New York, there are many tutors to assist students and professionals in getting familiar with terminology of this language so that they may clear the exam without any hassle. If you are a student or a job seeker and facing obstacles in getting success just because of less knowledge of English then it can help you out in moving forward without any difficulty. All you need to do for it to find a tutor who is capable enough of delivering what you expect; it is all your responsibility to ensure whether the person is able to keep his commitment or not . Therefore, always do a little research before hiring any English tutor as wrong guidance can ravage not only hard earned money but also you precious time.

Knowledge of English is that initial standard that everyone need to clear for getting desired level of success. As learning English is not that easy as it seems to be, the tutor must try to find out positive and negative aspect of every student so that the learning procedure can be made more interesting and easily adaptable according to requirement. If chosen wisely and after a comprehensive research, English tutor NYC can be the one to polish your positive aspects for taking you to the level of perfection. A good English tutor will observe your learning capabilities to ensure that how much time you will exactly take in learning fundamental features of English.

Once you get familiar with basics of English grammar you can carry on learning English yourself therefore, it is must to hire such a person who is capable to clear every expression of English language. Find a tutor with innovative teaching techniques as it will help you in learning everything more easily. Though learning English is not a tough task but inappropriate guidance can make it complex since rules of grammar can get quite enigmatic if you do not get proper guidance. If wisely chosen, a tutor can really improve your writing and verbal skills dramatically hence make a wise decision and hire the most efficient tutor to get success in every field of life.

The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Volume 2: The Romantic Period through the Twentieth Century (Norton Anthology of English Literature) The Norton Anthology of English Literature is a well-known English literary studies supplement for many undergraduate and some graduate-level students. Works included in the anthology (or other Norton Anthologies) are seen as having reached canonicity. Published by the W. W. Norton and Company, the NAEL is divided into two volumes, separating the late Mediaeval era and the Renaissance (Chaucer, Shakespeare, etc.) from the Romantic, Victorian, and Modern eras of English literature.

The majority of tertiary institutions use these books as set pieces for introductions to Shakespeare, Blake, Tennyson, or Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales, among many others.

In Volume 1, it explores extensively the very core of English literature from the Middle Ages, including Cædmon’s Hymn to Beowulf, moving on to Milton’s Paradise Lost.

The Middle Ages, the 16th century, the early 17th century, the 18th century, the Romantic Era, the Victorian Age, and 20th Century English literature are all well represented.

An anthology, literally “a garland” or “collection of flowers”, is a collection of literary works, originally of poems, but its usage has broadened to be applied to collections of short stories and comic strips. In genre fiction and especially science fiction, anthology is used to categorize collections of shorter works such as short stories, Novelettes up through short novels all collected into a (usually single) volume for publication.

The word derives from the Greek word for garland — or bouquet of flowers — which was the title of the earliest surviving anthology, assembled by Meleager of Gadara. Meleager’s Garland became the seed that grew into the Greek Anthology. The term miscellany is also used, but was more common in the past.

INTRODUCTION:

Churches and Cathedrals play a major role in the social life of England. In addition to being places of worship, they also serve as important landmarks for major historical events. They reflect the customs and traditions of the English as many of them have been standing there for several centuries. They also serve as a center of religious unity and Christians from all sections visit churches on Sunday to worship the Almighty. This also serve as a regional gathering and evokes a sense of unity among the people when they are all gathered together. Both the unity and the devotion helps them in maintaining a peaceful and harmonious social and personal life.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:

Churches and Cathedrals have been of prime importance in the United Kingdom for several centuries now. English Cathedrals can be traced back to a period of 400 years whereas the oldest English church is more than 1300 years old. The oldest English church was built in the year 654 A.D. whereas the oldest surviving parish church was constructed in 670 A.D.

Three types of churches were built in the olden days. They were “The Cathedral Churches”, “The Collegiate Churches” and “The Local Churches”. As per the system of hierarchy the Cathedrals were of the highest authority and were described as the mother churches whereas the collegiate churches were under the second level and were also referred as daughter churches. Finally, there were the local churches which were private in organization and were organized by bishops or by an association of parishioners. The parish churches were usually built and maintained by the Lords.

IMPORTANT CHURCHES AND CATHEDRALS:

Here is a list of some of the important churches and cathedrals in England:

  • Barking Baptist Church at Barking
  • Christ Church, Thames View at Barking
  • Congregational Church at Dagenham
  • Harmony Christian Centre at Dagenham
  • Hartley Brook Church at Dagenham
  • Potter’s House at Dagenham
  • St. Alban at Becontree
  • St. Chad at Chadwell Heath
  • St. Mark at Mark’s Gate
  • St. Vincent at Becontree
  • Tree of Life Church at Becontree

ARCHITECTURE:

Most of the Churches were constructed in the shape of a cross. There was a large rectangle with two side rooms. Usually, a tall tower was also present on the west. The other shapes commonly used for constructing churches were circle, octagon, etc. The roof was mostly in the shape of a dome.

The churches were well furnished for sitting. The place was very large so as to accommodate many people since this was the main purpose of a church. The churches consisted of statues or portraits of Jesus.

CONCLUSION:

Since medieval times, United Kingdom was known all over the world for its churches and cathedrals. Many British Empires were influenced by the church in the past. It also resulted in the downfall of a few empires. Even today, Churches and Cathedrals have direct or indirect influence in the English society. Thus, they have always held an important place in the social and political fabric of England though their influence has reduced a bit in modern times.

English majors are subject to take a variety of advanced literature courses. These higher-level courses delve into great detail about how to read various forms of writing, including fiction, poetry, essay, and drama. Writing types are broken down and explored on several different levels, instilling a great appreciation of the world of literature. With drama (also known as a play) students learn about several different components, one of which is the Elements of Drama.

The elements of drama include the plot, character, dialogue, staging, and theme. As students explore each element on an individual level, the analysis helps to see how it fits in conjunction with the other elements. Each analysis is followed by an act of synthesis, in which all of the elements are put into a relationship with one another.

The plot is the structure of a play’s action. It encompasses what happens in a play, the order of the incidents, and their arrangement and form. A traditional plot structure consists of an exposition – background information for the plot development, rising action – a set of conflicts and crises, climax – the play’s most decisive crisis, and falling action – a follow-up that generates resolution. The ultimate objective of the plot is to control the audience’s expectations about what is happening in the drama.

Some consider the plot to be the skeletal framework of a play, and the character is its vital center. Characters are what bring the play to life. They are so important because people respond and relate to them, even though they are fictional human beings. Consequently, the human qualities of characters are arguably their most engaging features. In relation to the framework, it is in conflict that characters reveal themselves and advance the plot.

Dialogue has three major functions: (1) to advance the plot; (2) to establish setting; (3) to reveal character. However, the most important and consistent objective of dialogue is to reveal the character. Dialogue is the catalyst that makes things happen, and as such, it becomes a form of action as well.

By staging, students learn about the visual details, including the actors on the stage, background scenery, props, costumes, etc. and how they increase their understanding of the play. Props like costumes and any physical objects that appear in a play can be an important dramatic symbol. The sounds and sights are also stage elements that increase our aural and visual imagination. Staging enhances the student’s appreciation of the literary composition and the dramatist’s craftsmanship.

The final Element of Drama is the theme. The theme refers to the play’s meaning or central idea. One of the most effective ways to determine the theme(s), of a play is by interpreting dialogue between the characters. Dialogue frequently represents conflicting ideas and varying viewpoints. Because there are different views, there can also be different themes. Reading dialogue can be instrumental in assessing main ideas and purpose to surmise the theme(s) of a play.

7 tricks for landing a GREAT job teaching English as a second language and
keeping it

Have you dreamed of living in a foreign country, traveling
around the world, or meeting new people and experiencing new cultures?

Maybe you have, and thought that it was inaccessible or out
of reach. Let me tell you, it’s not!

Like you, I had a keen interest in international travel,
and wanted to get out of the USA.

I was a somewhat seasoned IT professional. Life was great,
until the bottom fell out of the IT Market in the 90’s. . . I realized that I
was competing against people from all around the world, in a market I wasn’t
really that interested in, and that if I wanted to stay ahead, it was going to
require continual study, certification and re-certification for the rest of my
life.

So I decided to take off. Initially, I worked for a
management consulting company in India that outsourced Contact and Call centers
from the West. I did really well, and ended up being a vice president of that
company. Later, I taught English in China, India, and finally, in Thailand,
where I’ve stayed ever since.

Teaching English or ESL can be a very rewarding experience
for the right person. In many cultures, teachers are held in very high esteem,
and you’ll make a great salary, that will allow you to live a very comfortable
life.

If you want to land that dream ESL Teaching jobs, there are
a few tips that will help you out immensely.

Look for jobs in the country where you want to teach.
It’s relatively easy to find jobs in China, Korea, Japan, etc. online, but you
never know what you’re getting into until you’re there. It’s a great idea to
go ahead and get a “lay of the land”, take a look at the school in question,
and meet and talk with some other ESL teachers who you will work with.
They’ll be able to give you lots of great information on the potential job
that will help you make a better decision.

In some countries, like Thailand
and many others, it’s difficult to get hired from outside of the country. So
just plan on a short vacation, that may turn into a long term stay, and be sure
to take enough money to return home, or to another country you’re interested in
if things don’t work out.

Dress to impress! You don’t need to show up for an
interview wearing a three piece suit, but you need to look like a teacher. A
nice, ironed/pressed shirt, a pair of slacks, and ALWAYS a tie should serve you well.

Bring copies of all of your qualifications with you to
an interview. You’ll need copies of your original Bachelors degree, any TEFL
or ESL teaching certifications you have, and in some countries like Korea,
you’ll need originals of your transcripts from university.

Get a ESL/TEFL teaching certificate! There are lots out
there. The most recognized is probably the CELTA, offered through Cambridge
University at many locations throughout the world. The CELTA is a four week
course with an observed teaching practicum. If you’re looking for the better
jobs in the EFL/ESL world, CELTA is definitely the way to go. There are lots
of other certificate programs that you can choose from, and even many online.
Just remember – If you’re interviewing against similarly skilled and
experienced candidates, the better your credentials are, the better your
chance of landing the position!

Emphasize ANY teaching and/or training experience that
you may have had on your resume. If you taught a Sunday school class at your
Church, have trained people at work, or have any relevant experience with
children or education and training, this is much more important than being the
A1 bean-counter of the year at your previous position.

Talk with other teachers and learn about their classroom
management style. This is a key factor, especially in teaching young
learners. You may bet the worlds most gifted grammarian, but if you can’t
lead a classroom of energetic 10 year olds, you’ll be lost, or burn out very
quickly!

Try to learn all of the subtleties of the culture that
you can, and especially the ones which will affect your job of teaching ESL!
For instance, in many Asian cultures, children are VERY reluctant to tell you
the names of their parents, because the other students will call them by their
parents name. This may not seem like a big deal to you, but for the students,
its something of an insult to their family and specifically their parents.
So, if you have an exercise in your course material where the student tells
their name, their favorite food, the names of their family members, etc. you
may want to adjust this to fit the specific culture you’re teaching in.

Once you begin teaching ESL, you’ll learn to rely on your
colleagues who are more experienced, and who are successful as ESL/EFL
teachers. With young learners, make classroom management your main priority
from the start, and you’ll reap the rewards of a great class later on!

If you’re interest in more information and articles about
teaching English as a second language or English as a foreign language, please
visit the public website of The World ESL Society at
http://www.eslsociety.com

English is unlike many other GCSE subjects because, certainly in the case of English language, there are few, if any, hard facts to remember. However, this does not mean that it is unnecessary to revise for English GCSE. In fact, effective, thorough revision will play a key part in your performance in the examination, just like any other subject.

Before we get down to the nitty gritty of revision, it’s probably worth reminding yourself as to what you will come up against in the GCSE examination. English syllabuses vary across the country, but you’ll almost certainly be required to write essays, in the form of your own creative writing, writing to explain, describe or inform and writing to argue, persuade or advise. You’ll also be asked to read one or more fiction and non-fiction or media texts and to answer questions in response to them.

It is therefore relatively easy to divide the English syllabus up into chunks and to concentrate on one chunk at a time. A decent revision guide, either online or in print, can help to lead you through the various techniques that you’ll need to answer each type of question, but to try to find one that is appropriate to the English syllabus that you have followed.

Creative writing, for example, involves writing your own story or narrative. It’s helpful to outline a plot and the main characters involved on paper before you start. This means that you’ll have a pretty good idea as to where your story is going in terms of beginning, build-up, climax and ending, so you can concentrate on adding style and substance to your writing.

Writing to inform, explain or describe involves conveying information to your reader in one form or another. You need to be aware of your purpose and your audience, so that you include a detailed discussion, if necessary, ensuring that the reader can understand precisely what you mean.

Writing to argue, persuade or advise means presenting a coherent, logical argument that convinces the reader that yours is the only sensible point of view. In order to do this, you must grab the reader’s attention right from the start and get straight to the point. You can use certain “tricks”, such as expert opinion, ethical beliefs, striking or emotive language to reinforce your argument. However, if it is not based on logic to start with, it will not be convincing. Rhetorical questions often work well in this type of writing. You do want maximum marks in your GCSE examination don’t you?

There are clearly many more techniques that you need to appreciate and apply if you are going to reach the higher grades.

Of course, whatever the question you may be answering, the examiner will expect your spelling, punctuation and grammar to be up to scratch. To reach an A or A+ grade, you will not only need to spell and to punctuate correctly, but also write sentences that are grammatically correct and varied. This means avoiding writing as you would speak or the use of slang or dialect words, which the examiner may not understand. You must write in formal, standard English. Starting your sentences in different ways and varying their length will make your writing more interesting to read and will earn you additional marks.